Sunday, February 3, 2019

Adverbs, Kinds of Adverbs. All about Adverbs.



Kinds of Adverbs

There are eight kinds of adverbs :

Manner: bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well

Place: by, down, here, near, up, there

Time: now, soon, still, then, today, yet

Frequency: always, never, occasionally, often, twice

Sentence: certainly, definitely, luckily, surely

Degree: fairly, hardly, rather, quite, too, very

Interrogative: when? where? why?



(a) With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive form :

quickly    more quickly   most quickly

Single syllable adverbs, hard and early; adder, est :

hard     harder   hardest

early    earlier   earliest

(b) Irregular Comparisons :

well     better    best

bad     worse    worst

little    less        least

much  more   most

far      farther   farthest (of distance only)

far     further    furthest (used more widely)


(a)  Adverbs of manner come after the verb :

  • She sang beautifully.
or after the object where there is one :
  • He gave me the money reluctantly.
When the verb is transitive, an adverb can be placed either before the verb or after the object, but not between the verb and the object.
  • He briefly explained his meaning (Correct)
  • He explained his meaning briefly (Correct)
  • He explained briefly his meaning. (Wrong)
(b) If an adverb is placed after a clause or a phrase, it is considered to modify the verb in that clause/phrase :
  • They secretly decided to leave the town 
(The decision was secret) However, if we move secretly to the end of the sentence above, we change the meaning:
  • They decided to leave the town secretly.
(The departure was to be secret)
  • He answered the questions foolishly. 
(His answers were foolish)
  • He foolishly answered the questions. 
(It was foolish of him to answer at all)
(c) Here, there can be followed by be /come/go + noun subject :
  • Here’s Madhav.                    
  • There Deepa
  • Here comes the train. 
  • There goes our bus.
Here and there used as above, carry more stress than here/there placed after the verb. There’s also usually a difference in meaning :
  • Tom is here.
(He is in this room/ building/ town, etc.)
  • Here is Tom.
(He has just appeared OR we have just found him)
  • Tom comes here. 
(He is in the habit of coming to this place)
  • Here comes Tom. (He has just arrived)
(d) Since and ever since are used with perfect tenses :
He has been in bed since he broke his leg.

(e) Yet and still: Yet is normally placed after the verb or after verb + object :
  • He hasnt finished his breakfast yet.
But if the object consists of a large number of words. Yet can be placed before the verb:
  • He hasnt yet applied for the job we told him about.
  • Yet means up to the time of speaking.
It is chiefly used with negative and interrogative.

Still is placed after the verb ‘be’ but before other verbs :
  • She is still in bed. I am still at home.
Still emphasizes that the action continues. It is chiefly used with the affirmative and interrogative but can be used with the negative to emphasize the continuance of a negative action.
  • She still doesnt understand. 
(The negative action of not understanding continues)
  • He doesnt understand yet. 
(The positive action of understanding hasn’t yet started)

(f) Adverbs of degrees – absolutely, almost, completely, fairly, far, just, much, nearly, only, quite, rather modify adjectives or other adverbs :
  • You are absolutely right.       
  • I am almost ready.
But enough follows its adjective or adverb :
  • The box isnt big enough. 
  • He didnt work quickly enough
Far requires a comparative, or too + positive.
  • It is far better to say nothing.
  • He drives far too fast.
  • Much could replace far here.
  • It can also be used with a superlative :
  • It is much better to say nothing.          
  • He drives much too fast.
  • This solution is much the best. (incorrect)
  • This solution is much better. (correct)
 (g) Else should be followed by the adverb but, not than :
  • It is nothing else than pride. (Wrong)
  • It is nothing else but pride. (Correct)
  • Call me anything else than a fool. (Wrong)
  • Call me anything but a fool. (Correct)

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