Monday, December 3, 2018

Adjectives, Kinds of Adjectives.



Adjectives

1. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

The main kinds of adjectives are :


(a) Demonstrative   -  this, that, these, those

(b) Distributive    -    each, every, either, neither

(c) Quantitative   -    some, any, no, little/few, many, much

(d) Interrogative   -    which, what, whose

(e) Possessive   -    my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

(f)  Of quality      -    clever, dry, fat, golden

Participles used as adjectives


Both present participles (ing) past participles (ed) can be used as adjectives. Care must be taken not to
confuse them
Present participle adjectives -  amusing, boring, tiring, etc. are active and mean “having this 
effect”.

Past participle adjectives -  amused, bored,
tired, are passive and mean “affected in this way”.

An infuriating woman (She made us furious)

An infuriated woman (Something had made her furious)

2. POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives of quality can come before their nouns :

A rich man, A happy girl, colored jackets, gay hats.

In certain phrases, the adjective always comes after the noun. For example :

Time Immemorial, God Almighty, Heir Apparent

        Or

(a)  After a verb such as – be, become, seem

Jagdish became rich. His mother seems happy.

(b) After verbs such as – appear, feel, get, grow, keep, look, make, smell, sound, taste, turn

Mohan felt cold.   

We made her happy.

He grew impatient. 

The idea sounds interesting.

Adjectives in this position are called Predicative Adjectives. Verbs used in this way are called
Link Verbs.

A problem with verbs in (b) above is that they can be modified by adverbs. This confuses the student
, who tries to use adverbs instead of adjectives after link verbs. 

Following examples with adjectives and adverbs help to show
the different uses :

He looked calm. (adj.) = (He had a calm expression)

He looked calmly (adv.) at the angry crowd. (looked here is a deliberate action)

He tasted the drink suspiciously. (adv) = (tested here is a deliberate action)

3. DEGREES OF COMPARISON

(a) There are three degrees of comparison :


Positive  Comparative Superlative

dark             darker          darkest

useful       more useful    most useful

pretty           prettier          prettiest

(b)  One syllable adjectives form their comparative and   superlative degrees by adding er and
est to the positive form :

bright        brighter         brightest

Adjectives ending in e add r and st :

brave         braver          bravest

(c) Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative degrees by 
putting more and most before the positive :

interested   more interested   most interested

frightening   more freighting   most frightening

closely        more closely      most closely

(d)  Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the above rules. Those ending in ful, 
or, re usually take more and most :

 doubtful    more doubtful   most doubtful

obscure    more obscure    most obscure

Those ending in er, y or ly usually add er, est :

Clever    cleverer     cleverest

Pretty     prettier      prettiest

Silly        sillier        silliest

Adjective
Adjective


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