Saturday, February 9, 2019

Prepositions, How to use Prepositions.

February 09, 2019 0

Prepositions

Prepositions
Prepositions

The students have the main problems with prepositions. They have to know – (a) whether in a conjunction a preposition is required or not, and (b) which preposition to use when required. The students will need to acquire the knowledge of both these skills by sheer practice, for very few prepositions are governed by general rules. First, let us discuss those prepositions which follow certain specific conventions of usage :


PREPOSITIONS BEFORE PARTICULAR 

WORDS

(a) Time and Date :

at, on, by, before, in


at down                at midnight 

at six                     at 4:30        

at sixteen              at the age of seventeen

on Monday          at night (exception)

On the morning/afternoon/evening/night of a certain   date

We arrived on the morning of the sixth at 9.30 a.m.

(b) by, before :

by a time/date period: at that time/ before/ not later than that date

You had better be at the station by 6.00 p.m.

By the end of July, my results will have been declared.

(c) on time, in time, in good time

on time: at a time arranged, not before, not after.

The 8.15 train started on time.

in time = not late

Passengers should be in  time for their train

in good time = with a comfortable margin

I arrived at the theater for a good time.

(d) at the beginning/end, in  the beginning,/end, at first/ last :

At the beginning of a book, often there is a forward (literally at the beginning)

In the end, there may be an index.

In the beginning/ At first = In the early stages. It implies that later there was a change :

In the beginning, we used hand tools, later we had machines.

In the end/ At last = eventually/ after some time :

At first he opposed marriage, but in the end, he gave his consent.

(e) Time: from, since, for, during


i. from, since and for :
 ‘from’ is usually used with to or till/ unit. For example :

Most people work from nine to five.

‘Since’ is used for time and means from that time to the time referred to. It is used with perfect tense.

He has been here since Monday. (It means from Monday till now)

He wondered where Nina was. He had not seen her since their quarrel.

ii.  During and for :
‘For’ is used for a period of time :

for six years, for two months, forever

Bake it for two hours.

He traveled in the desert for six weeks

‘During’ is used with known periods of time :

during the Middle Ages  ®  during the summer of that year

during Christmas ® during May holidays.

For indicating purpose may be used before known periods :

I rented a house for my holidays.

(f) Travel and Movement :

from, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, off, out, out of

i. We travel ‘from’ our starting place ‘to’ our destination :
They flew/drove/cycled/walked from Delhi to Chandigarh.

When are you coming back to Bombay?

ii. arrive at/in, get to, reach (without preposition):
They arrived in India in March.

I arrived at the airport/ at the hotel/ at the bridge.

I got to the station just in time.

What time does the train arrive?

They reached the top of the mountain before sunrise.

iii. home (without preposition) :
They went home by bus. 

She returned to her parent’s home.

iv. by, on, get in, into, on, onto, off, out of :
We can travel by car/ sea/ air/ bus/ train. (But in the/ my/ Raj’s car)

We get into/ onto a bus.              

We go on board a boat.

We get on/onto a horse/ camel/ bicycle.

We get off a bus.

v. get in/ into/ out/ out of :
You have no keys. How are we going to get into the flat?

It is difficult to get into a college nowadays.

(g) at, in; in, into; on, onto :

i. at, in :
We can be at home/ work/ the office/ school/ university/ an address.

We can be in a country/ town street/ room/ wood/ field/ desert or ant place which has boundaries or is enclosed.

We can be ‘in’ or ‘at’ the sea, a river, a lake, a swimming pool, etc.

‘in’ here means actually in the water.

The children are swimming in the water.

At the sea/ river/ lake etc.., means near/ beside the sea. But at sea means on a ship.

ii.   in, into : In normally indicates position, into indicates  movement.
They climbed into the lorry. Thieves broke into my house.

iii. On, onto, upon can be used for both, position and movement :
He was sitting on his case.

His name is on the door

The cat jumped up on the table.

People climbed onto their roofs.

Wednesday, February 6, 2019

CONJUNCTIONS. KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS.

February 06, 2019 0

Conjunctions

KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS

CONJUNCTIONS
CONJUNCTIONS


(a) Coordinating Conjunctions :

Coordinating conjunctions join words to word groups of equal rank. The principal coordinating conjunctions  are :

and, nor, but, either, or, neither, for, yet

Hari and Vinod were invited to the party.

The keys are in the cupboard or in your pocket

I don’t feel good but I am determined to go.


(b) Subordinating Conjunctions :

Subordinating conjunction begins an adverbs clause; it joins the adverb clause to the rest of the sentences. Some principal subordinating conjunctions are :

After               before            

although           how                

as                 because         

while                  if                     

since               until

so that            when 

in order that    unless

though           where

Vidhya did not look in my direction because she was angry.

If that is your opinion, speak up.

I won’t leave unless you go with me.


(c) Correlative Conjunctions :

Certain coordinating and subordinating conjunctions are sometimes joined to forms that are known as correlative conjunctions. The principal pairs of  correlative conjunctions are :

both ______ and       

so _____ as

either ______ or                    

whether _____ or

neither _____ nor                 

not only ____ but also

Both Professor Saxena and Professor Raman are working on the problem

Whatever I vote or not is none of your business.

Either the points or the spark plugs need changing


(d) Conjunctive Adverbs :

Another kind of conjunction is called a conjunctive adverb because it has an adverbial function but can be used to connect two sentences or two main clauses.  Among numerous conjunctive adverbs, the following  appear frequently :

also                  however          otherwise

anyhow            in addition        still

besides            in fact               then

consequently   likewise            therefore

furthermore     nevertheless     thus

Learn to speak more slowly; otherwise, no one can understand you.

You seem to be certain of your facts, however, I do not agree.

The minister spoke indistinctly; he had no real facts.

Sunday, February 3, 2019

Adverbs, Kinds of Adverbs. All about Adverbs.

February 03, 2019 0
adverbs
adverbs

Adverbs

Kinds of Adverbs

There are eight kinds of adverbs :

Manner: bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well

Place: by, down, here, near, up, there

Time: now, soon, still, then, today, yet

Frequency: always, never, occasionally, often, twice

Sentence: certainly, definitely, luckily, surely

Degree: fairly, hardly, rather, quite, too, very

Interrogative: when? where? why?


COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE 

ADVERB FORMS

(a) With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive form :

quickly    more quickly   most quickly


Single syllable adverbs, hard and early; adder, est :

hard     harder   hardest

early    earlier   earliest


(b) Irregular Comparisons :

well     better    best

bad     worse    worst

little    less        least

much  more   most

far      farther   farthest (of distance only)

far     further    furthest (used more widely)

POSITION OF ADVERBS

(a)  Adverbs of manner come after the verb :

  • She sang beautifully.
or after the object where there is one :
  • He gave me the money reluctantly.
When the verb is transitive, an adverb can be placed either before the verb or after the object, but not between the verb and the object.
  • He briefly explained his meaning (Correct)
  • He explained his meaning briefly (Correct)
  • He explained briefly his meaning. (Wrong)
(b) If an adverb is placed after a clause or a phrase, it is considered to modify the verb in that clause/phrase :
  • They secretly decided to leave the town 
(The decision was secret) However, if we move secretly to the end of the sentence above, we change the meaning:
  • They decided to leave the town secretly.
(The departure was to be secret)
  • He answered the questions foolishly. 
(His answers were foolish)
  • He foolishly answered the questions. 
(It was foolish of him to answer at all)
(c) Here, there can be followed by be /come/go + noun subject :
  • Here’s Madhav.                    
  • There Deepa
  • Here comes the train. 
  • There goes our bus.
Here and there used as above, carry more stress than here/there placed after the verb. There’s also usually a difference in meaning :
  • Tom is here.
(He is in this room/ building/ town, etc.)
  • Here is Tom.
(He has just appeared OR we have just found him)
  • Tom comes here. 
(He is in the habit of coming to this place)
  • Here comes Tom. (He has just arrived)
(d) Since and ever since are used with perfect tenses :
He has been in bed since he broke his leg.

(e) Yet and still: Yet is normally placed after the verb or after verb + object :
  • He hasnt finished his breakfast yet.
But if the object consists of a large number of words. Yet can be placed before the verb:
  • He hasnt yet applied for the job we told him about.
  • Yet means up to the time of speaking.
It is chiefly used with negative and interrogative.

Still is placed after the verb ‘be’ but before other verbs :
  • She is still in bed. I am still at home.
Still emphasizes that the action continues. It is chiefly used with the affirmative and interrogative but can be used with the negative to emphasize the continuance of a negative action.
  • She still doesnt understand. 
(The negative action of not understanding continues)
  • He doesnt understand yet. 
(The positive action of understanding hasn’t yet started)

(f) Adverbs of degrees – absolutely, almost, completely, fairly, far, just, much, nearly, only, quite, rather modify adjectives or other adverbs :
  • You are absolutely right.       
  • I am almost ready.
But enough follows its adjective or adverb :
  • The box isnt big enough. 
  • He didnt work quickly enough
Far requires a comparative, or too + positive.
  • It is far better to say nothing.
  • He drives far too fast.
  • Much could replace far here.
  • It can also be used with a superlative :
  • It is much better to say nothing.          
  • He drives much too fast.
  • This solution is much the best. (incorrect)
  • This solution is much better. (correct)
 (g) Else should be followed by the adverb but, not than :
  • It is nothing else than pride. (Wrong)
  • It is nothing else but pride. (Correct)
  • Call me anything else than a fool. (Wrong)
  • Call me anything but a fool. (Correct)

Friday, February 1, 2019

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS WITH EXAMPLES.

February 01, 2019 0

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS

Verbs


Verbs
Verbs

The English verb has three principal parts: Present Tense (Present infinitive), Past Tense and Past Participle. e.g., eat, ate, eaten. Almost a principal past and a necessary verb form is the Present Participle, formed by adding ing to the present infinitive form. Examples are eating, walking, working.


The past and the past participle of many English verbs are formed by adding d, ed, or t  to the present. These are called regular verbs.

For example :

save        saved          saved

talk         talked         talked

mean       meant         meant


There are, however, other verbs called irregular verbs which do not follow a pattern. One group has a vowel change in the past tense and, in some cases, in the participle as well.

For example :

sing          sang           sung

fight         fought        fought

sit             sat              sat


Some verbs, in addition to vowel change, add n to form the past participle :

grow         grew          grown

fall            fell             fallen

fly             flew           flown

Another group changes its form completely in the past tense and past participle :

buy        bought       bought

stand      stood         stood

lie            lay            laid


A few verbs change the last consonant, but not the vowel:

make       made       made

build        built         built
 


A few others have the same form for all three principal parts :

cut          cut          cut

burst       burst       burst

cast         cast         cast


It is almost impossible to establish a rule for these changes. If you are uncertain about the correct verb form, consult your dictionary.

2. LINKING VERBS


Verbs
Verbs

Most verbs assert action, but a few express a static condition or state of being (no action). Most of these inactive verbs are called Linking Verbs. The most common linking verb is to be in its various forms of number, person, tense and mood. Other common linking verbs appear, become, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, seem, smell, sound, stand, taste, turn. When these verbs are followed by nouns or pronouns as direct objects, they are not linking verbs, but imply or express action. They are linking verbs if you can substitute some form of to be for them.


The sky looks cloudy this morning. (Linking verb)

Ram looks at Mohan as if he hates him. (Action verb)

The tea tasted too sweet. (Linking verb)

The girl cautiously tasted the drink. (Action verb,)


3. AUXILIARY VERBS


An auxiliary verb helps out the main verb. An auxiliary verb has little meaning of its own; rather it changes the meaning of the main verb.

Ganesh has left the city.

The machine will be sent this afternoon.

As we were leaving, we were stopped by a policeman.

Among all the auxiliary verbs, particular care should be taken to use the following correctly :


Shall and will, Should and would

(a) Shall and  Will :

Many writers still have strong convictions that the only correct way to express the simple future in formal writing is :

I shall do it.        

We shall do it.       

You will do it.                            

He will do it               

They will do it.

Though this distinction is not strictly observed, it is better to follow it.


(b)  Should and Would :

Should chiefly implies obligation in the sense of ought to; and would express a customary action with all three persons :

I should urge you to take action fast. (ought to)

You should do everything to protect your reputation.  (ought to)

Every day he would answer his letters as soon as he finished reading the mail. (habitual action)


I would always advise a careful revision before singing. (habitual action)

4. TENSE

Tense shows the time of the action or state of being expressed by a verb. The three divisions of time – past, present, future are shown in English by six tenses. The three primary or simple tenses are the present tense, the past tense, and the future tense. The three perfect (or secondary) tenses are the present perfect the past perfect and the future perfect.

The following brief table and comments on each tense should help you use the precise tenses needed to convey your ideas :

ACTIVE VOICE


Present:   I hear (I am hearing)

Past:   I heard (was hearing)

Future:   I shall hear (shall be hearing)

Present Perfect:   I have heard (have been hearing)

Past Perfect:    I had heard (had been hearing)

Future:    I shall have heard (shall have been hearing)

(a) Present Tense :


It indicates that the action or condition is going on or  exists now :
  • He exercises every morning.
  • The letters are posted


(b) Past Tense :

It indicates that an action or condition took place or existed at some definite time in the past.
  • Yesterday he gave an impressive speech. 
  • They were married on a Saturday.


(c) Future Tense :

It indicates that the action will take place or that a condition will exist in the future.
  • We shall move to Delhi next week.
  • The train will leave at midnight.
The future may be stated by present tense accompanied by an adverb (or adverbial phrase) Indicating the time
  • I am going to stop the letter today.
  • This Friday the plane takes off for Kenya.


(d) Present Perfect Tense :

It indicates that an action or condition was begun in the past and has just been completed or it’s still going on.     

The time is past but it is connected with the present. The present perfect tense presupposes some relationship with the present :
  • We have lived in Bombay for fifteen years.
  • The water has been too cold for swimming 
  • I have long been a friend of Patels


(e) Past Perfect Tense :

It indicates that an action or a condition was completed at a time now past. It indicates action “two steps back”.    

That is, the past perfect tense presuppose some relationship with an action or a condition expressed in  the past tense :

The market place was crowded because new supplies had arrived.
  • She was employed by ITC Company. 
  • She has worked there for two months.


(f) Future Perfect Tense :

 It indicates that an action or a condition will be completed at a future time :
  • By the time you arrive, I shall have finished my work.
  • The prices will have risen by the time the new supplies arrive.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

The government instituted “Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar”

January 26, 2019 0

The government instituted “Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar”

The government instituted “Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar”
The government instituted “Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar”

On 23rd January 2019, the  Union Government instituted an annual award titled ‘Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar’ to celebrate the 122nd birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. The award will recognize the efforts of organizations or individuals who work to alleviate the suffering of the affected population in the aftermath of any disaster. Their enormous contribution and selfless service to humanity often go unacknowledged. The award will be announced every year on 23rd January on the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. For the year 2019, 8th Battalion of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), located at Ghaziabad, was selected for this puraskar for its commendable work in Disaster Management. The Award recipient will receive a certificate and a cash prize of Rs. 51 lakhs.


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Uttar Pradesh celebrated its 69th foundation day

January 26, 2019 0

Uttar Pradesh celebrated its 69th foundation day

Uttar Pradesh celebrated its 69th foundation day
Uttar Pradesh celebrated its 69th foundation day

On 24th January 2019, Uttar Pradesh celebrated its 69th foundation day in Lucknow as “UP DIVAS”. To celebrate the occasion the main function was organized at Awadh Shilp Gram in Lucknow. Uttar Pradesh Governor Ram Naik and Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath along with members of state cabinet attended the function. Uttar Pradesh earlier known as United Province got its name as Uttar Pradesh on January 24, 1950.


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Ravneet Gill: New MD & CEO of Yes Bank

January 26, 2019 0

Ravneet Gill: New MD & CEO of Yes Bank

Ravneet Gill: New MD & CEO of Yes Bank
Ravneet Gill: New MD & CEO of Yes Bank

On 24th January 2019, Deutsche Bank India head, Ravneet Singh Gill has been appointed as the new Managing Director (MD) and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Yes Bank for a period of three years. He will succeed Rana Kapoor. RBI rejected Rana Kapoor’s extension to next three years. Gill tenure will begin from 1st March 2019. Gill has been serving as the CEO of Deutsche Bank in India since 2012. He has been at the bank since 1991.

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